ArticleDigitalEmerging TechTechnologyTunnel Boring

Wireless optical displacement sensor for convergence and divergence monitoring

FIG. 1
Scenarios of convergence (Erlandsson, 2020).

The automation of monitoring in general appears undeniably tempting right up to the moment at which prices are discussed. That is when suddenly manual surveys seem not so outdated anymore.

Obviously, this perspective is rather short-sighted if automation is applied where its advantages can be exploited, for example:

In areas where access is limited, difficult or dangerous.
In projects where frequent recording rates (that is, shorter than one day) are required.
Where long-term observations (that is, longer than one year) are desired.
Where it takes care of repetitive procedures to release human resources for decision-making tasks.
Any combination of the above.

The nature of tunneling more or less represents all of the abov...

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